One of the aims of the site is to direct users to writing on Cultural Memory in general that offers a theoretical framework adequate to support their developing research. The field of reading in Cultural Memory is of course immense. This Selected Bibliography was composed of core texts from the Institute's MA in Cultural Memory General Reading List, plus contributions from academics consulted during the development of the website. If you are aware of texts that provide an excellent framework for the study of Cultural Memory but are missing from this list, please email

Andrieu, Claire, Sarah Gensburger, Jacques Semelin (eds.), Resisting Genocide. The Multiple Forms of Rescue (Columbia University Press, 2011)
Antze, Paul and Michael Lambek (eds.), Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory (London: Routledge, 1996)
Bal, Mieke, Jonathan Crewe and Leo Spitzer (eds.), Acts of Memory: Cultural Recall in the Present (Hanover, NH & London: University Press of New England, 1999)
Bennett, Tony, The Birth of the Museum: History, Theory, Politics (London: Routledge, 1995)
Bevernage, Berber, History, Memory and State-sponsored violence. Time and Justice, (Routledge, 2011)
Boswell, David and Jessica Evans (eds.), Representing the Nation: A Reader, Histories, Heritage and Museums (London: Routledge, 1999)
Brodzki, Bella, Can these Bones Live? Translation, Survival and Cultural Memory (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007)
Candau, J., Anthropologie de la mémoire (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1996)
Caruth, Cathy (ed.), Trauma: Explorations in Memory (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1995)
Certeau, Michel de, The Practice of Everyday Life trans. Steven F. Rendall (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 2002)
Cohen-Pfister, Laurel and Dagmar Wienroeder-Skinner (eds.). Victims and Perpetrators 1933-1945. (Re)Presenting the Past in Post-Unificaton Culture. (Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2006)
Connerton, Paul, How Societies Remember (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)
---, How Modernity Forgets (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009) 
Crownshaw, Rick, Jane Kilby and Anthony Rowland (eds.), The Future of Memory (Berghahn, 2010)
Crownshaw, Richard, The Afterlife of Holocaust Memory in Contemporary Literature and Culture (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Memory Studies, 2010)
Crinson, M. ed. Urban Memory: History and Oblivion in the Modern City (London: Routledge, 2004)
D'Haen Theo and Patricia Krüs (eds.), The Proceedings of the XVth Conference of the International Comparative Literature Association, 'Literature as Cultural Memory' 10 vols. (Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 2000).
The volumes are:
1. Nation building
2. The colonizer and the colonized
3. The conscience of humankind: literature and traumatic experiences
4. Gendered memories
5. Genres as repositories of cultural memory
6. Methods for the study of cultural memory
7. Reconstructing cultural memory: translation, scripts, literacy
8. Intercultural studies
9. Travel writing and cultural memory
10. Images of Westerners in Chinese and Japanese literature
Eaglestone, Robert and Anthony Rowland (eds.), special edition of Critical Survey on Holocaust poetry (2009)
Erikson, Kai T., A New Species of Trouble: Explorations in Disaster, Trauma, and Community (New York : Norton, 1994)
Erll, Astrid, Ansgar Nuenning in collaboration with Sara B. Young (eds), Cultural memory studies : an international and interdisciplinary handbook. (Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter, c2008)
Forty, Adrian and Susanne Kühler (eds.), The Art of Forgetting (Oxford: Berg, 1999)
Freud, Sigmund, ‘Mourning and melancholia’, On Metapsychology, vol 11 Penguin Freud Library (London: Penguin, 1984)
Gildea, Robert, The Past in French History (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994)
Graham, Brian, Peter Howard (eds.) The Ashgate research companion to heritage and identity. (Aldershot: Ashgate, c2008)
Greenberg, Reesa, Bruce W. Ferguson and Sandy Nairne (eds.), Thinking about Exhibitions (London: Routledge, 1996)
Halbwachs, Maurice, The Collective Memory (New York: Harper and Row, 1980); French original La Mémoire collective (Paris, 1950)
Hall, Martin, Noeleen Murray and Nick Shepherd (eds.) Desire Lines: Space, Memory and Identity in the Post-Apartheid City (London: Routledge, 2007)
Hallam, Elizabeth and Jenny Hockey (eds.), Death, Memory and Material Culture (Oxford: Berg, 2001)
Hirsch, Marianne, Family Frames: Photography, Narrative and Postmemory (Cambridge, Mass: & London: Harvard University Press, 1997)
Hodgkin, Katherine and Susannah Radstone (eds.), Contested Pasts: The Politics of Memory (Routledge: London, 2003)
Homans, Peter (ed.), Symbolic Loss: The Ambiguity of Mourning and Memory at Century’s End (Charlottesvill and London: University Press of Virginia, 2000)
Huyssen, Andreas, Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (London: Routledge, 1995)
Irwin-Zarecka, Iwona, Frames of Remembrance: Social and Cultural Dynamics of Collective Memory (New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 1993)
Kilby, Jane, Violence and the Cultural Politics of Trauma (Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 2007)
Kuhn, Annette, An Everyday Magic: Cinema and Cultural Memory (London and New York: IB Tauris, 2002)
Kwint, Marius, Christopher Breward and Jeremy Aynsley (eds.), Material Memories: Design and Evocation (Oxford: Berg, 1999)
Marcus, Laura (ed.), Sigmund Freud’s ‘The Interpretation of Dreams’ (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999)
Labanyi, Jo ‘Historias de víctimas: La memoria histórica y el testimonio en la España contemporánea’, in Óscar Cornago (ed.), Prácticas de poder y estrategias de resistencia en la España democrática, dossier in Iberoamericana 6 (2006), 87-98
--- ‘Memory and Modernity in Democratic Spain: The Difficulty of Coming to Terms with the Spanish Civil War’, Poetics Today 28.1 (2007), 990-116
--- ‘Teaching history through memory work: issues of memorialization in representations of the Spanish civil war’, in Teaching the Spanish Civil War, ed. Noël Valis (New York: Modern Language Association, 2007), 436-47
--- ‘Cinema and the Mediation of Everyday Life in 1940s and 1950s Spain’, in Margaret Topping and Guyda Armstrong (eds), Alternative Voices in European Cinema, monographic issue of New Readings 8 (2007) (e-journal,
--- ‘O cine como memoria / A memoria do cine’, in Plan Rosebud: Sopbre imaxes, lugares e políticas de memoria, ed. María Ruido (Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia/Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea, 2008), 177-90 (published trilingually in Galician-Spanish-English)
--- ‘The languages of silence: historical memory, generational transmission, and witnessing in contemporary Spain’, in Debra Kelly and Gill Rye (eds), The Witness and the Text, monographic issue of Journal of Romance Studies 9.3 (2009)
--- ‘Testimonies of repression: methodological and political issues’, in Unearthing Franco’s Legacy: Mass Graves and the Recuperation of Historical Memory in Spain, ed. Carlos Jerez-Ferrán and Samuel Amago (South Bend: Notre Dame University Press, 2009)
Levinson, Sanford, Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1998)
Levy, Daniel and Natan Sznaider, Holocaust and Memory in a Global Age (Temple University Press, 2006)
----, Human Righhts and Memory (Penn State University, 2010)
Markowitsch, Hans J. & Harald Welzer, The Development of Autobiographical Memory. (London: Psychology Press, 2009)
Martin, Luther H., Huck Gutman and Patricia H. Hutton (eds.), Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988)
Matsuda, Matthew K., The Memory of the Modern (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996)
Mills, Amy, Streets of Memory: Landscape, Tolerance, and National Identity in Istanbul (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010)
Nora, Pierre, Realms of Memory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996-8); French original Les Lieux de mémoire (Paris: Gallimard, 1984)
Noiriel, Gérard, 'Immigration: amnesia and memory', French Historical Studies 19(2) (1995), 367-80
Norkunas, M., Monuments and Memory, Monuments and Memory: History and Representation in Lowell, Massachusetts (Washington DC: Smithsonian, 2002)
Novick, Peter, The Holocaust and Collective Memory (London: Bloomsbury, 2001)
Perks, Robert and A. Thomson (eds.), The Oral History Reader (London: Routledge, 1997)
The Personal Narratives Group (eds.), Interpreting Women's Lives: Feminist Theory and Personal Narratives (Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1989)
Radstone, Susannah (ed.), Memory and Methodology (Oxford: Berg, 2000)
Rosenstone, Robert A. , 'History in images/history in words: reflections on the possibility of really putting history onto film', American Historical Review 93(5) (1988), 1173-1185 (online version)
Rorato, Laura and Anna Saunders, The Essence and the Margin: National Identities and Collective Memories in Contemporary European Culture (Amsterdam-New York: Rodopi, 2009)
Rothberg, Michael, Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization (Stamford University Press, 2009)
Rowland, Antony, Holocaust Poetry: Awkward Poetics in the Work of Sylvia Plath, Geoffrey Hill, Tony Harrison and Ted Hughes (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005)
Samuel, Raphael, Theatres of Memory (London: Verso, 1994)
Steedman, Carolyn, Landscape for a Good Woman (London: Viking, 1986)
Sturken, Marita, The Vietnam War, the AIDS epidemic and the Politics of Remembering (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1997)
Taylor, Diane, The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas. (Duke University Press, 2003)
Terdiman, Richard, Present Past: Modernity and the Memory Crisis (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1993)
Thomson, Alistair, 'Moving Stories: Oral History and Migration Studies' (Oral History 27 [1-2 Spring 1999], 25-37)
Tilley, Christopher, A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg, 1994). See also other texts in this series 'Exploring Anthropology'
Young, James E., The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning (London: Yale University Press, 1993)
Wahnich, Sophie, Barbara Lášticová and Andrej Findor (eds.) Politics of collective memory : cultural patterns of commemorative practices in post-war Europe. (Berlin: Lit; London: Global, 2008)
Wilson, Colette, Paris and the Commune 1871-1878: The Politics of Forgetting (Manchester & New York: Manchester University Press, 2007)


British Library

Besides its huge collection of print materials the British Library also holds an extensive archive of oral history. If you are in a licensed UK higher or further education institution you can access the sound archive online, download and listen to recordings and add notes and tags. For direct access to the sound archive click here.
For an extensive list of links to oral history projects in Ireland and the UK, the USA and the rest of the world please click here.

Fondo Young Collection

An online catalogue giving details of the Università della Repubblica di San Marino’s Fondo Young collection of books, articles and memorabilia on the theme of memory and mnemonics. This is based primarily on the collection of American Morris N. Young, which the University acquired in 1991. The website is only available in Italian.

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress has a section on American Memory which describes and gives access to a wealth of artefacts, including those relating to immigrant communities. Emerging American recognition of conjoined histories has led to the setting-up of some projects with Spanish and Portuguese links, such as the Parallel Histories Project, which links the Library of Congress to Biblioteca Nacional de España. The libraries’ shared digital projects tend to favour patrimonic versions of history and memory, but collections such as The Spanish-American War in Motion Pictures begin to offer access to cultural memory as rendered in more popular media.

Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project

The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers is a project dedicated to bringing Eleanor Roosevelt's writings (and radio and television appearances) on democracy and human rights before an audience as diverse as the ones she addressed.

Wiener Library

The Wiener Library is one of the world's leading and most extensive archives on the Holocaust and Nazi era. Formed in 1933, the Library's unique collection of over one million items includes published and unpublished works, press cuttings, photographs and eyewitness testimony. Mission statement: to serve scholars, professional researchers, the media and the public as a library of record. To engage people of all ages and backgrounds in understanding the Holocaust and its historical context through an active educational programme.To be a living memorial to the evils of the past by ensuring that our wealth of materials is put at the service of the future. The Library provides a resource to oppose antisemitism and other forms of prejudice and intolerance. The Library's reputation rests on its independence and the scholarly objectivity of its activities and publications.



Bearing Witness. Between History and Memory

Three times a year the Fondation Auschwitz / Mémoire d'Auschwitz publishes its journal (which has existed for 25 years), to publicize the most recent multi-discipliary research on the Nazi camps and the genocide of the Jews and Gypsies.

Changing focus: family photography and American Jewish identity, The Scholar and Feminist Online, 1(3) (winter 2003)

Special edition of The Scholar and Feminist Online (published by the Barnard Centre for Research on Women). Edited by Laura Levitt, in response to Marianne Hirsch’s book Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997).
The publication offers scholarly analysis of issues relating to cultural memory, but also uses the Internet itself as a medium of exploration and representation, with the inclusion of online installations, such as Michelle Citron’s Jewish Looks.

Contributions to the History of Concepts

The website is the online home of Contributions to the History of Concepts, the international peer-reviewed journal of the History of Political and Social Concepts Group (HPSCG).Contributions is the international peer-reviewed journal of the History of Political and Social Concepts Group (HPSCG). It is hosted and sponsored by the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute. The journal serves as a platform for theoretical and methodological articles as well as empirical studies on the history of concepts and their social, political, and cultural contexts. It aims to promote the dialogue between the history of concepts and other disciplines, such as intellectual history, history of knowledge and science, linguistics, translation studies, history of political thought and discourse analysis.

History & Memory
History & Memory aims to explore not only official representations of the past in public monuments and commemorations but also the role of oral history and personal narratives, the influence of the new media in shaping historical consciousness, and the renewed relevance of history writing for emerging nations and social conflicts.

Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies

The Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies is a bi-annual international peer-reviewed online journal dedicated to the study of the relationship between literature and trauma.

Journal of Romance Studies, 3 (1) (spring 2003)

Contains several excellent articles relating to the exploration of Cultural Memory within Romance Studies in particular. Abstracts and notes on contributors are available as a pdf download. Members of Berghahn Journals can read full-length articles online.

Memory Studies

Memory Studies is an international peer reviewed journal which examines the social, cultural, cognitive, political and technological shifts affecting how, what and why individuals, groups and societies remember, and forget. The journal responds to and seeks to shape public and academic discourses on the nature, manipulation, and contestation of memory in the contemporary era.


Online Texts

Please note, the University of London bears no responsibility for the legal implications of downloading work from any of the following sites. Users should check each site's individual policy.

Benjamin, Walter, The Walter Benjamin Research Syndicate provide a list of links to online versions of several of Benjamin's texts both in English and German. Click here.

Freud, Sigmund, 'The Interpretation of Dreams' (1900) 

Halbwachs, Maurice, 'La mémoire collective et le temps' Cahiers internationaux de sociologie, 1947.
The Université de Québec à Chicoutimi offers a wide range of digitized classical sociological texts in French. A direct link to Halbwachs's article can be found here.

Passerini, Luisa, 'Becoming a Subject in the Time of the Death of the Subject' (notes for a conference in Bologna 2000). The lecture is also available as an audiofile.